Besides its use in WiFi networks based on the WiGig standard, 60 GHz also has use as a high data rate 4G-backhaul link, replacing expensive fibre optic cables. Engineers are developing phased-array antennas to focus line-of-sight connections using the highly directional 60 GHz signals. Such antennas let operators dynamically steer the links via software, which eases the job of deploying and upgrading connections.
Since FCC regulations for operation at 60 GHz are based on EIRP (equivalent isotropically radiated power) products, developers in the U.S. are pressing ahead with the development of phased-array based backhaul products. Unfortunately regulators in regions such as Europe may force operators to use existing high gain dish-based solutions for 60 GHz backhaul, which require time-consuming manual setup and maintenance.
The crux of the issue is that U.S. and European regulators have decided to use different definitions of the radiated power they will allow.
U.S. FCC regulation 15.255 for devices operating in the 60 GHz band specifies EIRP up to a maximum average power levels of +40 dBmi. These have also been extended for outdoor use between fixed points to as much as +82 dBmi, depending on antenna gain, as the result of an August 2013 ruling by the FCC.
Europe's CEPT REC(09)01, supplemented by ETSI EN 302 217, has a higher standard power level of +55 dBmi but typically limits maximum conducted power to +10 dBm and the minimum antenna gain to +30 dBi. This approach does not allow the trade-off of antenna gain and power in the way that the more flexible U.S. standard does. Thus equipment will be physically larger, creating aesthetic problems for the design of small cells and increasing installation time due to the need to manually align each link.
In addition, WiGig devices used in small cells outdoors will violate the European standards for minimum antenna gain and maximum conducted power. In addition, European operators who want to deploy point-to-point backhaul